Engineering Journal Article Downloads → An Introduction to Load and Resistance Factor Design for Steel Buildings

An Introduction to Load and Resistance Factor Design for Steel Buildings
Author: Pinkham, C.W.; Hansell, W.C.

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Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) is a major advance toward a simple, rational design of steel-framed buildings. It combines limit states of strength and serviceability with a modern probability-based approach to structural reliability. The essence of LRFD is the assignment of resistance and load factors on the basis of consistent reliability. Developed by T. V. Galambos and his associates at Washington University, St. Louis, LRFD is based on a project1 sponsored by the American Iron and Steel Institute Committees of Structural Steel Producers and Steel Plate Producers. This paper introduces LRFD, illustrating the treatment of loads and resistance and describing how the numerical values of load and resistance factors were established. Two companion papers also appear in this issue of the Engineering Journal: one2 describes the proposed LRFD Criteria and Commentary1 for steel buildings, which are the end product of the research project; the other summarizes design office studies conducted by two consultants during the project's evaluation phase.3