Publications


Interactive Reference List

Commentary on the Specification for Structural Steel Buildings

AUTHORS: A - D

AASHTO (2002),
Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges,
17th Ed.,
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.transportation.org.

AASHTO (2014),
LRFD Bridge Design Specifications,
7th Ed.,
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.transportation.org.

ACI (1997),
Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage and Temperature Effects in Concrete Structures,
ACI 209R-92,
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
Available at: www.concrete.org.

ACI (2008),
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete,
ACI 318-08 and ACI 318M-08,
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
Available at: www.concrete.org.

ACI (2010a),
Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials and Commentary,
ACI 117-10,
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
Available at: www.concrete.org.

ACI (2010b),
Specification for Structural Concrete,
ACI 301-10,
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
ACI 301-16 is available at: www.concrete.org.

ACI (2013),
Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures,
ACI 349-13,
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
Available at: www.concrete.org.

ACI (2014),
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary,
ACI 318-14 and ACI 318M-14,
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
Available at: www.concrete.org.

Agarwal, A. and Varma, A.H. (2011),
"Design of Steel Columns for Fire Loading Including Effects of Rotational Restraints,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 48, No.4, pp. 297–314.

Agarwal, A., Choe, L. and Varma, A.H. (2014a),
"Fire Design of Steel Columns: Effects of Thermal Gradients,"
Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Elsevier,
Vol. 93, pp. 107–118.
Available at: www.sciencedirect.com.

Agarwal, A., Selden, K. and Varma, A.H. (2014b),
"Stability Behavior of Steel Building Structures in Fire Conditions: Role of Composite Floor System with Shear-Tab Connections,"
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Multi Science Publishing,
Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 77–96.
Available at: www.emeraldinsight.com.

Agarwal, A. and Varma, A.H. (2014),
"Fire Induced Progressive Collapse of Steel Building Structures: The Role of Interior Gravity Columns,"
Engineering Structures, Special Issue on Fire Analysis of Structures, Elsevier,
Vol. 58, pp. 129–140.
Available at: www.sciencedirect.com.

Aghayere, A. and Vigil, J. (2014),
Structural Steel Design, A Practice Oriented Approach,
2nd Ed.,
Prentice Hall, NJ.
Available at: www.pearson.com/us.

AISC (1923),
Standard Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,
American Institute of Steel Construction, New York, NY, June 1.

AISC (1936),
Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings,
American Institute of Steel Construction, New York, NY, June.

AISC (1946),
Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings,
American Institute of Steel Construction, New York, NY, February.

AISC (1949),
Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings,
American Institute of Steel Construction, New York, NY, June 23.

AISC (1963),
Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings,
American Institute of Steel Construction, New York, NY, April 17.

AISC (1969),
Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL, February 12.

AISC (1973),
"Commentary on Highly Restrained Welded Connections,"
Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Construction,
Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 61–73.

AISC (1975),
Australian Standard AS1250,
Australian Institute of Steel Construction, Sydney, Australia.
This publication is not readily available.

AISC (1978),
Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL, November 1.

AISC (1986),
Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL, September 1.

AISC (1989),
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings—Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL, June.

AISC (1993),
Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL, December 1.

AISC (1997a),
A Guide to Engineering and Quality Criteria for Steel Structures,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (1997b),
"AISC Advisory Statement on Mechanical Properties Near the Fillet of Wide Flange Shapes and Interim Recommendations, January 10, 1997,"
Modern Steel Construction, American Institute of Steel Construction,
Chicago, IL, February, p. 18.

AISC (2000a),
Specification for the Design of Steel Hollow Structural Sections,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2000b),
Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL, December 27.

AISC (2005),
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,
ANSI/AISC 360-05,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL, March 9.

AISC (2006),
Standard for Steel Building Structures,
AISC 201-06,
Certification Program for Structural Steel Fabricators, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2010),
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,
ANSI/AISC 360-10,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL, June 22.

AISC (2011),
Steel Construction Manual,
14th Ed.,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2012),
Seismic Design Manual,
2nd Ed.,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2016a),
Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges,
ANSI/AISC 303-16,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2016b),
Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings,
ANSI/AISC 341-16,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2016c),
Prequalified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel Moment Frames for Seismic Applications,
ANSI/AISC 358-16,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC-SSRC (2003a),
"Background and Illustrative Examples on Proposed Direct Analysis Method for Stability Design of Moment Frames,"
Technical White Paper, AISC Technical Committee 10, AISC-SSRC Ad Hoc Committee on Frame Stability, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC-SSRC (2003b),
"Basic Design for Stability: Lecture 3—Frame Stability—Alignment Charts and Modifications,"
American Institute of Steel Construction and Structural Stability Research Council, Chicago, IL.

AISI (1969),
Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members,
American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
This publication is not readily available.

AISI (1970),
"Interior Corrosion of Structural Steel Closed Sections,"
Bulletin 18, February,
American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.

AISI (1979),
Fire-Safe Structural Design—A Design Guide,
American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
This publication is not readily available.

AISI (2001),
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members,
American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.steel.org.

AISI (2007),
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members,
ANSI/AISI Standard S100 2007,
American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.steel.org.

AISI (2012),
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members,
AISI S100-12,
American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.steel.org.

Allan, R.N. and Fisher, J.W. (1968),
"Bolted Joints with Oversize and Slotted Holes,"
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE,
Vol. 94, No. ST9, pp. 2,061–2,080.
This publication is not readily available.

Amrine, J.J. and Swanson, J.A. (2004),
"Effects of Variable Pretension on Bolted Connection Behavior,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 107–116.

Ang, A.H-S. and Tang, H.T. (1984),
Probability Concepts in Engineering Planning and Design, Vol.II: Decision, Risk and Reliability,
John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, NY.
Second edition available at: www.wiley.com.

Ang, K.M. and Morris, G.A. (1984),
"Analysis of Three-Dimensional Frames with Flexible Beam-Column Connections,"
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, NRC Research Press,
Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 245–254.
Available at: www.nrcresearchpress.com.

ANSI (1972),
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures,
ANSI A58.1-1972,
American National Standards Institute, New York.
This publication is not readily available.

API (1993),
Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms—Load and Resistance Factor Design,
1st Ed.,
American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, July.
Available at: www.api.org.

API (2012),
Specification for Line Pipe,
45th Ed.,
American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.api.org.

ASCE (1971),
Plastic Design in Steel, A Guide and a Commentary,
ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 41,
American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

ASCE (1978),
Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 104, No. ST9,
American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

ASCE (1979),
Structural Design of Tall Steel Buildings,
American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

ASCE (1981),
"Planning and Environmental Criteria for Tall Buildings, A Monograph on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings,"
Vol. PC, Chapter PC-13,
American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

ASCE (1988),
"Wind Drift Design of Steel-Framed Buildings: State of the Art,"
Task Committee on Drift Control of Steel Building Structures, Journal of the Structural Division, American Society of Civil Engineers,
Vol. 114, No. 9, pp. 2,085–2,108.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

ASCE (1992a),
"Proposed Specification for Structural Steel Beams with Web Openings,"
Task Committee on Design Criteria for Composite Structures in Steel and Concrete, Journal of Structural Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers,
Vol. 118, No. ST12, pp. 3,315–3,324.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

ASCE (1992b),
"Commentary on Proposed Specification for Structural Steel Beams with Web Openings,"
Task Committee on Design Criteria for Composite Structures in Steel and Concrete, Journal of Structural Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers,
Vol. 118, No. ST12, pp. 3,325–3,349.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

ASCE (1997),
Effective Length and Notional Load Approaches for Assessing Frame Stability: Implications for American Steel Design,
Task Committee on Effective Length,
American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

ASCE (1999),
Specification for Structural Steel Beams with Web Openings,
ASCE/SEI 23-97,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

ASCE (2000),
Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures,
ASCE 10-97,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

ASCE (2003),
Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings,
ASCE/SEI 31-03,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

ASCE (2005),
Standard Calculation Methods for Structural Fire Protection,
ASCE/SEI/SFPE 29-05,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

ASCE (2008),
Standard Calculation Methods for Structural Fire Protection,
ASCE/SEI/SFPE 29-08,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

ASCE (2010),
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures,
ASCE/SEI 7-10,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA
Available at: www.asce.org.

ASCE (2013),
Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings,
ASCE/SEI 41-13,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: www.asce.org.

ASCE (2014),
Design Loads on Structures During Construction,
ASCE/SEI 37-14,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: www.asce.org.

ASCE (2016),
Minimum Design Loads and Associated Criteria for Buildings and Other Structures,
ASCE/SEI 7-16,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: www.asce.org.

Aslani, F. and Goel, S.C. (1991),
"An Analytical Criteria for Buckling Strength of Built-Up Compression Members,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 159–168.

ASME (1995),
Unified Inch Screw Threads (UNJ Thread Form), B1.15,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY.
Available at: www.asme.org.

ASME (2010),
Fasteners for Use in Structural Applications, B18.2.6,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY.
Available at: www.asme.org.

ASNT (2011a),
Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing,
ASNT SNT-TC-1A-2011,
American Society of Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, OH.
Available at: www.asnt.org.

ASNT (2011b),
Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel,
ANSI/ASNT CP-189-2011,
American Society of Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, OH.
Available at: www.asnt.org.

ASTM (1967),
Specification for High Tensile Strength Carbon-Silicon Steel Plates for Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels,
ASTM 212,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2006),
Standard Test Methods for Determining Effects of Large Hydrocarbon Pool Fires on Structural Members and Assemblies,
ASTM E1529-06,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2009a),
Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware,
ASTM A153/153M-09,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2009b),
Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials,
ASTM E119-09c,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2012a),
Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Surface Acceptance Standards, Magnetic Particle and Liquid Penetrant Inspection,
ASTM A903/A903M-99(2012)e1,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2012b),
Standard Practice for Castings, Carbon,
Low-Alloy, and Martensitic Stainless Steel, Ultrasonic Examination Thereof,
ASTM A609/A609M-91(2012),
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2013a),
Standard Reference Photographs for Magnetic Particle Indications on Ferrous Castings,
ASTM E125-63(2013),
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2013b),
Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Warpage and Distortion During Hot-Dip Galvanizing of Steel Assemblies,
ASTM A384/A384M-13,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2014),
Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Embrittlement of Hot-Dip Galvanized Structural Steel Products and Procedure for Detecting Embrittlement,
ASTM A143/A143M,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2015a),
Standard Practice for Providing High-Quality Zinc Coatings (Hot-Dip),
ASTM A385/A385M-15,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2015b),
Standard Practice for Repair of Damaged and Uncoated Areas of Hot-Dip Galvanized Coatings,
ASTM A780/A780M-15,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2015c),
Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products,
ASTM A123/A123M-09,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2015d),
Standard Practice for Steel Castings, Surface Acceptance Standards, Visual Examination,
ASTM A802-95(2015),
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2015e),
Standard Practice for Radiographic Examination of Metallic Castings,
ASTM E1030/E1030M,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2016),
Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Steel Forgings,
ASTM A388/A388M-16,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ATC (1978),
"Tentative Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for Buildings,"
Publication 3-06,
Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, CA, June.
Available at: www.atcouncil.org.

Austin, W.J. (1961),
"Strength and Design of Metal Beam-Columns,"
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE,
Vol. 87, No. ST4, pp.1–32.
This publication is not readily available.

AWS (2007),
Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding,
AWS A5.17/A5.17M-97 (R2007),
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Available at: www.aws.org.

AWS (2012),
Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding,
AWS A5.1/A5.1M:2012,
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Available at: www.aws.org.

AWS (2013),
Specification for the Qualification of Welding Inspectors,
2nd Ed.,
AWS B5.1.2013-AMD 1,
November 14, 2012, Amendment October 7, 2014, American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Available at: www.aws.org.

AWS (2014),
Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding,
AWS A5.5/A5.5M:2014,
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Available at: www.aws.org.

AWS (2015),
Structural Welding Code—Steel,
AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2015,
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Available at: www.aws.org.

Bailey, C. (2004),
"Membrane Action of Composite Floor Systems in Fire,"
Proceedings of Third International Workshop, Structures in Fire, Ottawa, ON, Canada, May.
Available at: www.sciencedirect.com.

Bartlett, R.M., Dexter, R.J., Graeser, M.D., Jelinek, J.J., Schmidt, B.J. and Galambos, T.V. (2003),
"Updating Standard Shape Material Properties Database for Design and Reliability,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 2–14.

Basler, K., Yen, B.T., Mueller, J.A. and Thürlimann, B. (1960),
"Web Buckling Tests on Welded Plate Girders,"
Welding Research Council Bulletin No. 64, September, New York, NY.
Available at: http://preserve.lehigh.edu.

Basler, K. (1961),
"Strength of Plate Girders in Shear,"
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE,
Vol. 104, No. ST9, pp. 151–180.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

Basler, K. and Thürlimann, B. (1963),
"Strength of Plate Girders in Bending,"
Transactions, ASCE,
Vol. 128, Part II, pp. 655–682.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

Bathe, K. (1995),
Finite Element Procedures,
Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
This publication is not readily available.

Bednar, J., Wald, F., Vodicka, J. and Kohoutkova, A. (2013),
"Experiments on Membrane Action of Composite Floors With Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Slab Exposed to Fire,"
Fire Safety Journal, Elsevier,
Vol. 59, pp. 111-121.
Available at: www.sciencedirect.com.

Beedle, L.S. (1958),
Plastic Design of Steel Frames,
John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

Bigos, J., Smith, G.W., Ball, E.F. and Foehl, P.J. (1954),
"Shop Paint and Painting Practice,"
Proceedings of AISC National Engineering Conference, Milwaukee, WI,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Bijlaard, F.S.K., Gresnigt, A.M. and van der Vegte, G.J. (eds.) (2005),
Connections in Steel Structures V,
Bouwen met Staal, Delft, the Netherlands.

Birkemoe, P.C. and Gilmor, M.I. (1978),
"Behavior of Bearing-Critical Double-Angle Beam Connections,"
Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 109–115.

Birnstiel, C. and Iffland, J.S.B. (1980),
"Factors Influencing Frame Stability,"
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE,
Vol. 106, No. 2, pp. 491–504.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

Bjorhovde, R. (1972),
"Deterministic and Probabilistic Approaches to the Strength of Steel Columns,"
Ph.D. Dissertation, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, May.
This publication is not readily available.

Bjorhovde, R. (1978),
"The Safety of Steel Columns,"
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE,
Vol. 104, No. ST9, pp. 1,371–1,387.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org.

Bjorhovde, R. and Birkemoe, P.C. (1979),
"Limit States Design of HSS Columns,"
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, NRC Research Press,
Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 276–291.
Available at: www.nrcresearchpress.com.

Bjorhovde, R., Brozzetti, J. and Colson, A. (eds.) (1988),
Connections in Steel Structures: Behaviour, Strength and Design,
Elsevier Applied Science, London, England.

Bjorhovde, R. (1988),
"Columns: From Theory to Practice,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 21–34.

Bjorhovde, R., Colson, A. and Brozzetti, J. (1990),
"Classification System for Beam-to Column Connections,"
Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
Vol. 116, No. 11, pp. 3,059–3,076.
Available at: cedb.asce.org.

Bjorhovde, R., Colson, A., Haaijer, G. and Stark, J.W.B. (eds.) (1992),
Connections in Steel Structures II: Behavior, Strength and Design,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Bjorhovde, R., Colson, A. and Zandonini, R. (eds.) (1996),
Connections in Steel Structures III: Behaviour, Strength and Design,
Pergamon Press, London, England.

Bjorhovde, R., Goland, L.J. and Benac, D.J. (1999),
"Tests of Full-Scale Beam-to-Column Connections,"
Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX and Nucor-Yamato Steel Company, Blytheville, AR.

Bjorhovde, R. (2006),
"Cold Bending of Wide-Flange Shapes for Construction,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 271–286.

Bjorhovde, R., Bijlaard, F.S.K. and Geschwindner, L.F. (eds.) (2008),
Connections in Steel Structures VI,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Bleich, F. (1952),
Buckling Strength of Metal Structures,
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

Blodgett, O.W. (1967),
"The Question of Corrosion in Hollow Steel Sections,"
Welding Design Studies in Steel Structures, Lincoln Electric Company,
D610.163, Cleveland, OH, August.
This publication is not readily available.

Borello, D.J., Denavit, M.D. and Hajjar, J.F. (2009),
"Behavior of Bolted Steel Slip-Critical Connections with Fillers,"
Report No. NSEL-017,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, August.
Available at: www.ideals.illinois.edu.

Bradford, M.A., Wright, H.D. and Uy, B. (1998),
"Local Buckling of the Steel Skin in Lightweight Composites Induced by Creep and Shrinkage,"
Advances in Structural Engineering, Multi Science Publishing,
Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 25–34.
Available at: journals.sagepub.com.

Bradford, M.A., Loh, H.Y. and Uy, B. (2002),
"Slenderness Limits for Filled Circular Steel Tubes,"
Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Elsevier,
Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 243–252.
Available at: www.sciencedirect.com.

Bridge, R.Q. and Bizzanelli, P. (1997),
Imperfections in Steel Structures,
Proceedings—1997 Annual Technical Session, and Meeting,
SSRC, pp. 447–458.
This publication is not readily available.

Bridge, R.Q. (1998),
"The Inclusion of Imperfections in Probability-Based Limit States Design,"
Proceedings of the 1998 Structural Engineering World Congress, San Francisco, CA, July.
This publication is not readily available.

Brockenbrough, R.B. and Johnston, B.G. (1981),
USS Steel Design Manual,
United States Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA.
This publication is not readily available.

Brockenbrough, R.L. (1983),
"Considerations in the Design of Bolted Joints for Weathering Steel,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 40–45.

Brockenbrough, R.L. (2002),
AISC Rehabilitation and Retrofit Guide, A Reference for Historic Shapes and Specifications,
Design Guide 15,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Brosnan, D.P. and Uang, C.M. (1995),
"Effective Width of Composite L-Beams in Buildings,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 73–81.

Bruneau, M., Uang, C.-M. and Sabelli, R. (2011),
Ductile Design of Steel Structures,
2nd Ed.,
McGraw Hill, New York, NY.
Available at: www.mheducation.com.

BSSC (2003),
NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures,
FEMA 450-1,
Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.nehrp.gov.

BSSC (2009),
NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures,
FEMA P-750,
Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.fema.gov.

BSSC (2015),
NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures,
FEMA P-1050,
Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.fema.gov.

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