AISC


14th Edition Interactive Reference List

Part 1: Dimensions and Properties

Ruddy, J.L., Marlo, J.P., Ioannides, S.A. and Alfawakhiri, F. (2003),
Fire Resistance of Structural Steel Framing, Design Guide 19,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Seaburg, P.A. and Carter, C.J. (1997),
Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members, Design Guide 9,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Part 2: General Design Considerations

ACI (2008),
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary,
ACI 318,
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
Available at: www.concrete.org.

Allison, H., (1991),
Low-and Medium-Rise Steel Buildings, Design Guide 5,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

AISC (1973),
"Commentary on Highly Restrained Welded Connections,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 10, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 61-73.

AISC (2005),
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,
ANSI/AISC 360-05,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2006),
Seismic Design Manual,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2009),
Detailing for Steel Construction,
3rd Ed.,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2010a),
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,
ANSI/AISC 360-10,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2010b),
Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings,
AISI/AISC 341-10,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2010c),
Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2011),
Design Examples,
V. 14.0,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

ASCE (2010),
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures,
ASCE/SEI 7-10,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: www.asce.org

AWS (2007),
Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing and Nondestructive Examination,
AWS A2.4,
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Available at: www.aws.org.

AWS (2010),
Structural Welding Code-Steel,
AWS D1.1:2010,
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Available at:  www.aws.org.

Barger, B.L. and West, M.A. (2001),
"New OSHA Erection Rules: How They Affect Engineers, Fabricators and Contractors,"
Modern Steel Construction, May,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Barsom, J.A. and Rolfe, S.T. (1999),
Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures: Applications of Fracture Mechanics,
3rd Edition,
ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at  www.astm.org.

Bjorhovde, R. (2006),
"Cold Bending of Wide-Flange Shapes for Construction,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 43, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 271-286. Small Lock Icon

Brockenbrough, R.L. and Merritt, F.S. (1999),
Structural Steel Designer's Handbook,
3rd Edition,
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Available at  www.mhprofessional.com.

Brockenbrough, R.L. (2002),
AISC Rehabilitation and Retrofit Guide-A Reference for Historic Shapes and Specifications, Design Guide 15,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Camp, J.M., Francis, C.B. and McGannon H.E. (1951),
The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel,
6th Edition,
U.S. Steel, Pittsburgh, PA.
This publication is not readily available.

Carter, C.J. (1999),
Stiffening of Wide-Flange Columns at Moment Connections: Wind and Seismic Applications, Design Guide 13,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

CASE (2003),
A Guideline Addressing Coordination and Completeness of Structural Construction Documents,
Document 962D,
Council of American Structural Engineers.
Available at: http:// www.acec.org/case/

Churches, C.H., Troup, E.W.J. and Angeloff, C. (2003),
Steel-Framed Open-Deck Parking Structures, Design Guide 18,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

CISC (1989),
Roof Framing with Cantilever (Gerber) Girders & Open Web Joists,
Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, Willowdale, Ontario, Canada.

Darwin, D. (1990),
Steel and Composite Beams with Web Openings, Design Guide 2,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Dexter, R.J. and Melendrez, M.I. (2000),
"Through-Thickness Properties of Column Flanges in Welded Moment Connections,"
Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
Vol. 126, No. 1, pp. 24-31.
Available at:  http://cedb.asce.org/.

DOD (2009),
Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse,
UFC 4-023-03, July.
Available at:  www.wbdg.org.

Federal Construction Council (1974),
Technical Report No. 65 Expansion Joints in Buildings,
National Research Council, Washington, DC.
Available at:  www.nap.edu.

Fisher, J.M. and West, M.A. (1997),
Erection Bracing of Low-Rise Structural Steel Buildings, Design Guide 10,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Fisher, J.M. (2004),
Industrial Buildings-Roofs to Anchor Rods, Design Guide 7, 2nd Ed.,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Fisher, J.M. and Kloiber, L.A. (2006),
Base Plate and Anchor Rod Design, Design Guide 1, 2nd Ed.,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Fisher, J.W., Kulak, G.L. and Smith, I.F.C. (1998),
A Fatigue Primer for Structural Engineers,
NSBA/AISC, Chicago, IL.

Geschwindner, L.F. and Gustafson, K. (2010),
"Single Plate Shear Connection Design to Meet Structural Integrity Requirements,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 47, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 189-202.

Griffis, L.G. (1992),
Load and Resistance Factor Design of W-Shapes Encased in Concrete, Design Guide 6,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Gross, J.L., Engelhardt, M.D., Uang, C.M., Kasai, K. and Iwankiw, N.R. (1999),
Modification of Existing Welded Steel Moment Frames for Seismic Resistance, Design Guide 12,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

ICC (2009),
International Building Code,
International Code Council, Falls Church, VA.
Available at:  www.iccsafe.org.

Kaehler, R.C. and White, D.W. (2010),
Web-Tapered Frame Design, Design Guide 25
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Kulak, G.L. (2002),
High-Strength Bolts-A Primer For Structural Engineers, Design Guide 17,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Leon, R.T., Hoffman, J.J. and Staeger, T. (1996),
Partially Restrained Composite Connections, Design Guide 8
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Miller, D.K. (2006),
Welded Connections- A Primer for Engineers, Design Guide 21,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Murray, T.M. and Sumner, E.A. (2003),
Extended End-Plate Moment Connections-Seismic and Wind Applications, Design Guide 4, 2nd Ed.
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Murray, T.M., Allen, D.E. and Ungar, E.E. (1997),
Floor Vibrations Due to Human Activity, Design Guide 11,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Murray, T.M. and Shoemaker, W.L. (2002),
Flush and Extended Multiple-Row Moment End-Plate Connections, Design Guide 16,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

OSHA (2001),
Safety and Health Standards for the Construction Industry, 29 CFR 1926 Part R Safety Standards for Steel Erection,
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.
Available at:  www.osha.gov.

Packer, J., Sherman, D. and Leece, M. (2010),
Hollow Structural Section Connections, Design Guide 24,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Parker, J.C. (2008),
Façade Attachments to Steel-Framed Buildings, Design Guide 22,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

RCSC (2009),
Specification for Structural Joints Using High-Strength Bolts,
Research Council on Structural Connections, Chicago, IL.
Available at:  www.boltcouncil.org.

Ricker, D.T. (1988),
"Field Welding to Existing Structures,"
Engineering Journal, AISC
Vol. 25, No. 1, 1st Quarter, pp. 1-16.

Rolfe, S.T. (1977),
"Fracture and Fatigue Control in Steel Structures,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 14, No. 1, 1st Quarter, pp. 2-15.

Rongoe, J. (1996),
"Design Guidelines for Continuous Beams Supporting Steel Joist Roof Structures,"
Proceedings of the AISC National Steel Construction Conference, pp. 23.1-23.44,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Ruby, D.I. (2008),
Constructability of Structural Steel Buildings, Design Guide 23,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Ruddy, J.L. (1986),
"Ponding of Concrete Deck Floors,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 23, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 107-115.

Ruddy, J.L., Marlo, J.P., Ioannides, S.A. and Alfawakhiri, F. (2003),
Fire Resistance of Structural Steel Framing, Design Guide 19,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Sabelli, R. and Bruneau, M. (2006),
Steel Plate Shear Walls, Design Guide 20,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Seaburg, P.A. and Carter, C.J. (1997),
Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members, Design Guide 9,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

SSPC (2000),
Systems and Specifications: SSPC Painting Manual Volume II,
8th Edition,
The Society for Protective Coatings, Pittsburgh, PA.
2011 edition available at  www.sspc.org.

Thornton, W.A. (1995),
"Connections: Art, Science, and Information in the Quest for Economy and Safety,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 32, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 132-144.

Tide, R.H.R. (1990),
"Reinforcing Steel Members and the Effects of Welding,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 27, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 129-131.

USGSA (2003),
"Progressive Collapse Analysis and Design Guidelines for New Federal Office Buildings and Major Modernization Projects,"
U.S. General Services Administration, Washington DC.
This publication is not readily available.

West, M.A. and Fisher, J.M. (2003),
Serviceability Design Considerations for Steel Buildings, Design Guide 3, 2nd Ed.,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Wexler, N. and Lin, F.B. (2002),
Staggered Truss Framing Systems, Design Guide 14,
AISC, Chicago, IL.

Part 3: Design of Flexural Members

Allison, H.R. (1991), 
Low-and Medium-Rise Steel BuildingsDesign Guide 5, 
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL. 

Murray, T.M., Allen, D.E. and Ungar, E.E. (1997),
Floor Vibrations Due to Human ActivityDesign Guide 11, 
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

Viest, I.M., Colaco, J.P., Furlong, R.W., Griffis, L.G., Leon, R.T. and Wyllie, L.A., Jr. (1997),
Composite Construction: Design for Buildings,
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

West, M.A. and Fisher, J.M. (2003),
Serviceability Design Considerations for Steel BuildingsDesign Guide 3, 2nd Ed., 
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL. 

Part 4: Design of Compression Members

Geschwindner, L.F. (2010),
Discussion of Limit State Responses of Composite Columns and Beam-Columns Part II: Application of Design Provisions for the 2005 AISC Specification,”
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 47, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 131-139. 

Griffis, L.G. (1992),
Load and Resistance Factor Design of W-Shapes Encased in ConcreteDesign Guide 6,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Sakla, S. (2001),
"Tables for the Design Strength of Eccentrically-Loaded Single Angle Struts,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 38, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 127-136. 

Viest, I.M., Colaco, J.P., Furlong, R.W., Griffis, L.G., Leon, R.T. and Wyllie, L.A. (1997),
Composite Construction Design for Buildings,
ASCE, New York, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

Ziemian, R.D. (ed.) (2010),
Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, 6th Ed.,
John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Available at: www.wiley.com/WileyCDA.

Part 6: Design of Members Subject to Combined Forces

Aminmansour, A. (2000),
"A New Approach for Design of Steel Beam-Columns,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 37, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 41-72. 

Aminmansour, A. (2006),
"New Method of Design for Combined Tension and Bending,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 43, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 247-256. 

Aminmansour, A. (2009),
"Optimum Flexural Design of Steel Members Utilizing Moment Gradient and Cb,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 46, No. 1, 1st Quarter, pp. 47-55. 

Seaburg, P.A. and Carter, C.J. (1997),
Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel MembersDesign Guide 9, 
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Part 7: Design Considerations for Bolts

American Iron and Steel Institute (2007),
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members,
AISI, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.steel.org.

Bowman, M.D. and Betancourt, M. (1991),
"Reuse of A325 and A490 High-Strength Bolts,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 28, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 110-118. 

Carter, C.J. (1996),
"Specifying Bolt Length for High-Strength Bolts,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 33, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 43-53. 

Crawford, S.F. and Kulak, G.L. (1968),
"Behavior of Eccentrically Loaded Bolted Connections,"
Studies in Structural Engineering, No. 4, 
Department of Civil Engineering, Nova Scotia Technical College, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
This reference is not readily available.
See: "Eccentrically Loaded Bolted Connections," by Crawford, S.F. and Kulak, G.L., 
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 97, No. ST3, March 1971.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Henderson, J.E. (1996),
"Bending, Bolting and Nailing of Hollow Structural Sections,"
Proceedings International Conference on Tubular Structures, pp.150-161,
American Welding Society.
This publication is not readily available.

Higgins, T.R. (1971),
"Treatment of Eccentrically Loaded Connections in the AISC Manual,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 8, No. 2, April, pp. 52-54. 

Korol, R.M., Ghobarah, A. and Mourad, S. (1993),
“Blind Bolting W-Shape Beams to HSS Columns,”
Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
Vol. 119, No. 12, pp. 3463-3481.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Kulak, G.L. (1975),
"Eccentrically Loaded Slip-Resistant Connections,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 12, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 52-55. 

Kulak, G.L. (2002),
High-Strength Bolts—A Primer For Structural EngineersDesign Guide 17, 
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Packer, J.A. (1996),
“Nailed Tubular Connections under Axial Loading,”
Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
Vol. 122, No. 8, pp. 867-872.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Sherman, D.R. (1995),
"Simple Framing Connections to HSS Columns,"
Proceedings National Steel Construction Conference, AISC,
pp. 30-1 to 30-16.

Part 8: Design Considerations for Welds

AWS (1992),
Guide for the Nondestructive Inspection of Welds,
AWSB1.10,
American Welding Society, Miami, FL
Available at: www.aws.org.

AWS (2007),
Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing and Nondestructive Examination,
American Welding Society, Miami, FL. 
Available at: www.aws.org.

Blodgett, O.W. (1966),
Design of Welded Structures,
James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, Cleveland, OH.
Available at: https://ssl.lincolnelectric.com/foundation.

Blodgett, O.W. (1980),
"Detailing to Achieve Practical Welded Fabrication,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 17, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 106-119. 

Blodgett, O.W., Funderburk, R.S. and Miller, D.K. (1997), 
Fabricator’s and Erector’s Guide to Welded Steel Construction
James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, Cleveland, OH.
Available at: www.jflf.org.

Butler, L.J., Pal, S. and Kulak, G.L. (1972), 
“Eccentrically Loaded Welded Connections,” 
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE,
Vol. 98, No. ST5, May, pp. 989–1005, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Crawford, S.F. and Kulak, G.L. (1968), 
“Behavior of Eccentrically Loaded Bolted Connections,” 
Studies in Structural Engineering, No. 4, 
Department of Civil Engineering, Nova Scotia Technical College, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
This reference is not readily available.
See: "Eccentrically Loaded Bolted Connections," by Crawford, S.F. and Kulak, G.L., 
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 97, No. ST3, March 1971.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Higgins, T.R. (1971),
"Treatment of Eccentrically Loaded Connections in the AISC Manual,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 8, No. 2, April, pp. 52-54. 

Institute of Welding (1972),
Procedures and Recommendations for the Ultrasonic Testing of Butt Welds,
London, England.
This publication is not readily available.

Kaufmann, J.A., Pense, A.W. and Stout, R.D. (1981),
“An Evaluation of Factors Significant to Lamellar Tearing,”
Welding Journal Research Supplement, AWS,
Vol. 60, No. 3, March, Miami, FL.
Available at: www.aws.org.

Krautkramer, J. (1990),
Ultrasonic Testing of Materials, 4th Ed.,
Springer-Verlag, Berlin, West Germany.
This publcation is not readily available.

Lesik, D.F., Kennedy, D.J.L. (1990),
“Ultimate Strength of Fillet-Welded Connections Loaded in Plane,”
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, National Research Council of Canada,
Vol. 17, No. 1, Ottawa, Canada.
Available at: www.nrcresearchpress.com.

Post, J.W. (1990),
Box-Tube Connections: Choices of Joint Details and Their Influence on Costs.”
National Steel Construction Conference Proceedings, AISC,
Chicago, IL. 

Part 9: Design of Connection Elements

ACI/ASCE/TMS (2005a),
Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures
ACI 530/ASCE 5/ TMS 402, 
Farmington Hills, MI.
Available at: www.asce.org.

ACI/ASCE/TMS (2005b),
Specification for Masonry Structures
ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/ TMS 602, 
Farmington Hills, MI.
Available at: www.asce.org.

AWS (2010),
Structural Welding Code—Steel,
AWS D1.1/D1.1M,
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Available at: www.aws.org.

Carter, C.J. (1999),
Stiffening of Wide-Flange Columns at Moment Connections: Wind and Seismic ApplicationsDesign Guide 13, 
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Cheng, J.J. and J.A. Yura (1986),
“Local Web Buckling of Coped Beams,”
Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
Vol. 112, No. 10, pp. 2,314-2,331.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Dowswell, R.S. (2011),
A Yield Line Component Method for Bolted Flange Connections,”
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 48, No. 2, 2nd Quarter. 

Muir, L.S., and Hewitt, C.M. (2009),
Design of Unstiffened Extended Single-Plate Shear Connections,”
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 46, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 67-79. 

Swanson, J.A. (2002),
"Ultimate Strength Prying Models for Bolted T-Stub Connections,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 39, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 136-147. 

Thornton, W.A. (1992),
"Strength and Serviceability of Hanger Connections,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 29, No.4, 4th Quarter, pp. 145-149. 
See Also ERRATA,
Engineering Journal, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1st Quarter, 1996, pp. 39, 40.

Thornton, W.A. (1996),
"Rational Design of Tee Shear Connections,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 33, No.1, 1st Quarter, pp. 34-37. 

Wheeler, A.T., Clarke, M.J., Hancock, G.J. and Murray, T.M. (1998),
“Design Model for Bolted Moment End-Plate Connections Joining Rectangular Hollow Sections,”
Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
Vol. 124, No. 2.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Whitmore, R.E. (1952),
“Experimental Investigation of Stresses in Gusset Plates,”
Bulletin No. 16, Civil Engineering,
The University of Tennessee Engineering Experiment Station, Knoxville, TN
This publication is not readily available.

Part 10: Design of Simple Shear Connections

Abolitz, A.L and Warner, M.E. (1965),
Bending Under Seated Connections
Engineering Journal, AISC, 
January, pp. 1-5. 

Astaneh, A., Call, S.M. and McMullin, K.M. (1989),
"Design of Single-Plate Shear Connections"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 26, No. 1, 1st Quarter, pp. 21-32. 

AWS (2010),
Structural Welding Code—Steel,
AWS D1.1/D1.1M,
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Available at: www.aws.org.

Brockenbrough, R.L. (1998),
Fabrication Guidelines for Cold Bending,
R.L. Brockenbrough and Associates, Pittsburgh, PA.
Available at: www.steel.org.

Ellifritt, D.S. and Sputo, T. (1999),
"Design Criteria for Stiffened Seated Connections to Column Webs"
Engineering Journal, AISC, 
Vol. 36, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 160-167. 

Kulak, G.L. (2002),
High Strength Bolts—A Primer For Structural EngineersDesign Guide 17,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Kulak, G.L. and Green, D.L. (1990),
"Design of Connectors in Web-Flange Beam or Girder Splices"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 27, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 41-48. 

Muir, L.S. and Hewitt, C.M. (2009),
Design of Unstiffened Extended Single-Plate Shear Connections
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 46, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 67-79. 

Muir, L.S. and Thornton, W.A. (2011),
“Design of Conventional Single-Plate Shear Connections”
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 48, No. 2, 2nd Quarter 

Roeder, C.W. and Dailey, R.H. (1989),
"The Results of Experiments on Seated Beam Connections"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 26, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 90-95. 

Salmon, C.G., Johnson, J.E. and Malhas, F.A. (2009),
Steel Structures: Design and Behavior,
5th Ed., Prentice Hall, 
Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Available at: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/.

Sputo, T. and Ellifritt, D.S. (1991),
Proposed Design Criteria for Stiffened Seated Connections to Column Webs,”
Proceedings of the 1991 National Steel Construction Conference, AISC,
pp. 8.1-8.26, Chicago, IL. 

Sherman, D.R. (1996),
"Designing With Structural Tubing,"
Engineering Journal, AISC, 
Vol. 33, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 101-109. 

Sherman, D.R., and Ghorbanpoor, A. (2002),
"Design of Extended Shear Tabs"
Final Report to the American Institute of Steel Construction, AISC, 
Chicago, IL. 

Sumner, E.A. (2003),
"North Carolina State Research Report on Single Plate Shear Connections"
Report to the American Institute of Steel Construction, AISC, 
Chicago, IL. 

Thornton, W.A. and Fortney, P. (2011),
On the Need for Stiffeners for and the Effect of Lap Eccentricity on Extended Shear Tabs
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 48, No. 2, 2nd Quarter. 

Part 11: Design of Partially Restrained Moment Connections

Blodgett, O.W. (1966),
Design of Welded Structures,
James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, Cleveland, OH.
Available at: https://ssl.lincolnelectric.com/foundation.

Carter, C.J. (1999),
Stiffening of Wide-Flange Columns at Moment Connections: Wind and Seismic ApplicationsDesign Guide 13,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Chen, W.F., Goto, Y. and Liew, J.Y.R. (1996),
Stability Design of Semi-Rigid Frames,
John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, NY.
Available at: www.wiley.com.

Chen, W.F. and Lui, E.M. (1991),
“Stability Design of Steel Frames,”
CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
This publication is not readily available.

Deierlein, G.G, Hsieh, S.H. and Shen, Y.J. (1990),
"Computer-Aided Design of Steel Structures with Flexible Connections,"
Proceedings of the 1990 National Steel Construction Conference, AISC,
pp. 9.1-9.21, Chicago, IL. 

Gerstle, K.H. and Ackroyd, M.H. (1989),
"Behavior and Design of Flexibly Connected Building Frames,"
Proceedings of the 1989 National Steel Construction Conference, AISC,
pp. 1.1-1.28, Chicago, IL. 

Geschwindner, L.F. (1991),
"A Simplified Look at Partially Restrained Connections,"
Engineering Journal, AISC, 
Vol. 28, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 73-78. 

Geschwindner, L.F. and Disque, R.O. (2005),
"Flexible Moment Connections for Unbraced Frames—A Return to Simplicity,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 42, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 99-112. 

Goverdhan, A.V. (1983),
“A Collection of Experimental Moment Rotation Curves and Evaluation of Prediction Equations for Semi-Rigid Connections,”
Master of Science Thesis,
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.
This publication is not readily available.

Kishi, N. and Chen, W.F. (1986),
“Database of Steel Beam-to-Column Connections,”
CE-STR-86-26,
Purdue University, School of Engineering, West Lafayette, IN.
Available at: https://engineering.purdue.edu.

Leon, R.T. Hoffman, J.J. and Staeger, T. (1996),
Partially Restrained Composite ConnectionsDesign Guide 8,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Nethercot, D.A. and Chen, W.F. (1988),
“Effects of Connections on Columns,”
Journal of Constructional Steel Research, pp. 201-239,
Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, Essex, England.
Available at: www.sciencedirect.com.

Rex, C.O. and Goverdhan, A.V. (2002),
"Design and Behavior of a Real PR Building,"
Connections in Steel Structures IV: Behavior Strength and Design, Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Connections in Steel Structures
AISC,
October 22-24, 2000, pp. 94-105, Chicago, IL. 

Part 12: Design of Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Connections

AISC (1977),
Bridge Fatigue Guide Design and Details,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL. 

Carter, C.J. (1999),
Stiffening of Wide-Flange Columns at Moment Connections: Wind and Seismic ApplicationsDesign Guide 13,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Driscoll, G.C., Pourbohloul, A. and Wang, X. (1983),
“Fracture of Moment Connections—Tests on Simulated Beam-to-Column Web Moment Connection Details,”
Fritz Engineering Laboratory Report No. 469.7,
Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.
This publication is not readily available.

Driscoll, G. C. and Beedle, L. S. (1982),
"Suggestions for Avoiding Beam-to-Column Web Connection Failures,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 19, No. 1, 1st Quarter, pp. 16-19. 

Hart, W. H. and Milek, W. A. (1965),
"Splices in Plastically Designed Continuous Structures,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 2, No. 2, April, pp. 33-37. 

Huang, J.S., Chen, W.F. and Beedle, L.S. (1973),
“Behavior and Design of Steel Beam-to-Column Moment Connections,”
Bulletin 188, October,
Welding Research Council, New York, NY.
Available at: http://www.forengineers.org/wrc/.

Lincoln Electric Company (1973),
The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding,
Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, OH.
This publication is not readily available.

Murray, T.M. and Sumner, E.A. (2003),
Extended End-Plate Moment Connections-Seismic and Wind Applications2nd Ed., Design Guide 4,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Murray, T.M. and Shoemaker, W.L. (2002),
Flush and Extended Multiple-Row Moment End-Plate ConnectionsDesign Guide 16,
AISC and MBMA, Chicago, IL. 

Meng, R.L. and Murray, T.M. (1997),
Seismic Performance of Bolted End-Plate Moment Connection,”
Proceedings, AISC National Steel Construction Conference, May 7-9, pp. 30-1 to 30-14,
Chicago, IL. 

Packer, J.A. and Henderson, J.E. (1997),
Hollow Structural Section Connections and Trusses—A Design Guide, 2nd Ed.,
Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, Alliston, Ontario, Canada.
Available at: http://www.cisc-icca.ca/.

Packer, J., Sherman, D. and Leece, M. 2010,
Hollow Structural Section ConnectionsDesign Guide 24
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Part 13: Design of Bracing Connections and Truss Connections

AISC (1984),
Engineering for Steel Construction,
pp. 7.55-7.62,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Bjorhovde, R. and Chakrabarti, S.K. (1985),
“Tests of Full-Size Gusset Plate Connections,”
Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
Vol. 111, No. 3, pp. 667-684, New York, NY.
Available at http://cedb.asce.org/.

Gross, J.L. and Cheok, G. (1988),
Experimental Study of Gusseted Connections for Laterally Braced Steel Buildings,
National Institute of Standards and Technology Report NISTIR 88-3849,
NIST, Gaithersburg, MD. 

Gross, J.L. (1990),
"Experimental Study of Gusseted Connections,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 27, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 89-97. 

Hewitt, C.M. and Thornton, W.A. (2004),
"Rationale Behind and Proper Application of the Ductility Factor for Bracing Connections Subjected to Shear and Transverse Loading,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 41, No. 1, 1st Quarter, pp.3-6. 

Packer, J., Sherman, D. and Leece, M. (2010a),
Hollow Structural Section ConnectionsDesign Guide 24,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Packer, J.A., Wardenier, J., Zhao, X.-L., van der Vegte, G.J. and Kurobane, Y. (2010b),
Design Guide for Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Joints Under Predominantly Static Loading, Design Guide 3, CIDECT, 2nd Ed.,
LSS Verlag, Koln, Germany. 
Available at: www.cidect.org.

Richard, R.M. (1986),
"Analysis of Large Bracing Connection Designs for Heavy Construction,"
National Steel Construction Conference Proceedings, pp. 31.1-31.24,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Ricker, D.T. (1992),
"Value Engineering and Steel Economy,"
Modern Steel Construction, Vol. 32, No. 2 (February),
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Thornton, W.A. (1991),
"On the Analysis and Design of Bracing Connections,"
National Steel Construction Conference Proceedings, pp. 26.1-26.33,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Thornton, W.A. (1992),
“Designing for Cost Efficient Fabrication and Construction,”
Constructional Steel Design-An International Guide, Chapter 7, pp. 845-854,
Elsevier, London, UK.
Available at: www.routledge.com.

Part 14: Design of Beam Bearing Plates, Column Base Plates, Anchor Rods and Column Splices

ACI (2006),
Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures,
ACI 349-06,
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
Available at: www.concrete.org.

ACI (2008),
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete,
ACI 318-08 and ACI 318M-08,
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
Available at: www.concrete.org.

ASSE (2001),
Safety Requirements for Steel Erection,
ANSI/ASSE 10.13-01,
American Society of Safety Engineers, Des Plaines, IL.
Available at: www.asse.org.

Fisher, J.M. (2004),
Industrial Buildings—Roofs to Anchor RodsDesign Guide 7, 2nd Ed.,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Fisher, J.M. and Kloiber, L.A. (2006),
Base Plate and Anchor Rod DesignDesign Guide 1, 2nd Ed.,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Fisher, J.M. and West, M.A. (1997),
Erection Bracing of Low-Rise Structural Steel FramesDesign Guide 10,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Marsh, M.L. and Burdette, E.G. (1985a),
"Anchorage of Steel Building Components to Concrete,"
Engineering Journal, AISC, 
Vol. 15, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 33-39. 

Marsh, M.L. and Burdette, E.G. (1985b),
"Multiple Bolt Anchorages: Method for Determining the Effective Projected Area of Overlapping Stress Cones,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 15, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 29-32. 

Popov, E.P. and Stephen, R.M. (1977),
"Capacity of Columns with Splice Imperfections,"
Engineering Journal, AISC, 
Vol. 14, No. 1, 1st Quarter, pp. 16-23. 

Ricker, D.T. (1989),
"Some Practical Aspects of Column Base Selection,"
Engineering Journal, AISC, 
Vol. 26, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 81-89. 

Thornton, W.A. (1990a),
"Design of Small Base Plates for Wide-Flange Columns,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 27, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 108-110. 

Thornton, W.A. (1990b),
"Design of Small Base Plates for Wide-Flange Columns—A Concatenation of Methods,"
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 27, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 173-174. 

Part 15: Design of Hanger Connections, Bracket Plates, and Crane-Rail Connections

Mohr, B.A. and Murray, T.M. (2008),
Bending Strength of Steel Bracket and Splice Plates,”
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 45, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 97-106. 

Muir, L.S. and Thornton, W.A. (2004),
A Direct Method for Obtaining the Plate Buckling Coefficient for Double Coped Beams,”
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 41, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 133-134. 

Swanson, J.A. (2002),
Ultimate Strength Prying Models for Bolted T-Stub Connections,”
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 39, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 136-147. 

Thornton, W.A. (1992),
Strength and Serviceability of Hanger Connections,”
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 29, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 145-149. 
See also ERRATA 
Engineering Journal, AISC,
Vol. 33, No. 1, 1st Quarter, 1996, pp. 39, 40. 

Part 16 (Authors: A - K): Commentary on the AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings

AASHTO (2002), 
Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 
17th Ed., 
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.transportation.org.

AASHTO (2010), 
LRFD Bridge Design Specifications
5th Ed., 
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.transportation.org.

ACI (1997), 
Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage and Temperature Effects in Concrete Structures
ACI 209R-92, 
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. 
Available at: www.concrete.org.

ACI (2001), 
Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures
ACI 349-01, 
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
ACI 349-06 is available at: www.concrete.org.

ACI (2002), 
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
ACI 318-02 and ACI 318M-02, 
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
ACI 318-08 is available at: www.concrete.org.

ACI (2005), 
Specification for Structural Concrete, 
ACI 301-05, 
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
ACI 301-10 is available at: www.concrete.org.

ACI (2006), 
Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials
ACI 117-06, 
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
ACI 117-10 is available at: www.concrete.org.

ACI (2008), 
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
ACI 318-08 and ACI 318M-08, 
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
Available at: www.concrete.org.

AISC (1969), 
Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings
AISC, Chicago, IL. 
Nonmembers may purchase the Historical Specification CD-ROM in the Bookstore under Computer Products.

AISC (1973), 
Commentary on Highly Restrained Welded Connections,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 61–73. 
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

AISC (1975), 
Australian Standard AS1250
Australian Institute of Steel Construction, Sydney, Australia.
This publication is not readily available.

AISC (1978), 
Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings
AISC, Chicago, IL. 
Nonmembers may purchase the Historical Specification CD-ROM in the Bookstore under Computer Products.

AISC (1986), 
Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
AISC, Chicago, IL. 
Nonmembers may purchase the Historical Specification CD-ROM in the Bookstore under Computer Products.

AISC (1989), 
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings—Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design
AISC, Chicago, IL. 
Nonmembers may purchase the Historical Specification CD-ROM in the Bookstore under Computer Products.

AISC (1993), 
Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
AISC, Chicago, IL. 
Nonmembers may purchase the Historical Specification CD-ROM in the Bookstore under Computer Products.

AISC (1997a), 
A Guide to Engineering and Quality Criteria for Steel Structures
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

AISC (1997b),
AISC Advisory Statement on Mechanical Properties Near the Fillet of Wide Flange Shapes and Interim 
Recommendations, January 10, 1997
,” 
Modern Steel Construction, February, p. 18.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

AISC (2000a), 
Specification for the Design of Steel Hollow Structural Sections
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

AISC (2000b), 
Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
December 27, 1999, 
AISC, Chicago, IL. 
Nonmembers may purchase the Historical Specification CD-ROM in the Bookstore under Computer Products.

AISC (2005a), 
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
ANSI/AISC 360-05, 
AISC, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2005b), 
Steel Construction Manual
13th Ed., 
AISC, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2005c),
Design Examples,
V. 13.1,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2006a), 
Seismic Design Manual
AISC, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2006b), 
Standard for Steel Building Structures
AISC 201-06, Certification Program for Structural Steel Fabricators, 
AISC, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2010a), 
Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges
AISC 303-10, 
AISC, Chicago, IL.

AISC (2010b), 
Seismic Provisions for Structural Buildings
AISC, Chicago, IL.

AISC-SSRC (2003a), 
Basic Design for Stability: Lecture 3—Frame Stability—Alignment Charts and Modifications,” 
American Institute of Steel Construction and Structural Stability Research Council, Chicago, IL. 

AISC-SSRC (2003b), 
Background and Illustrative Examples on Proposed Direct Analysis Method for Stability Design of 
Moment Frames
,” 
Technical White Paper, AISC Technical Committee 10, AISC-SSRC Ad Hoc Committee on Frame 
Stability, AISC, Chicago, IL. 

AISI (1969), 
Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.steel.org.

AISI (1970),
Interior Corrosion of Structural Steel Closed Sections,” 
Bulletin 18, February, 
American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC. 

AISI (1979), 
Fire-Safe Structural Design-A Design Guide
American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
This publication is not readily available.

AISI (2001), 
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.steel.org.

AISI (2007), 
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
ANSI/AISI Standard S100 2007, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.steel.org.

Allan, R.N. and Fisher, J.W. (1968), 
"Bolted Joints with Oversize and Slotted Holes," 
Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 94, No. ST9, September, pp. 2061–2080.
ASCE, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Amrine, J.J. and Swanson, J.A. (2004), 
Effects of Variable Pretension on Bolted Connection Behavior,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 41, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 107–116.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Ang, A.H-S. and Tang, H.T. (1984), 
Probability Concepts in Engineering Planning and Design, Vol.II: Decision, Risk and Reliability,  
John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, NY.
Second edition available at: www.wiley.com.

Ang, K.M. and Morris, G.A. (1984), 
“Analysis of Three-Dimensional Frames with Flexible Beam-Column Connections,” 
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 245–254.
Available at: www.nrcresearchpress.com/journal/cjce.

API (1993), 
Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms—Load and 
Resistance Factor Design

1st Ed., 
American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, July.
Available at: www.api.org.

ASCE (1971), 
Plastic Design in Steel, A Guide and a Commentary
ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 41, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
This publication is not readily available.

ASCE (1979), 
Structural Design of Tall Steel Buildings
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
This publication is not readily available.

ASCE (1981), 
“Planning and Environmental Criteria for Tall Buildings, A Monograph on Planning and Design of Tall
 Buildings,” 
Vol. PC, Chapter PC-13, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
This publication is not readily available.

ASCE (1999), 
Specification for Structural Steel Beams with Web Openings
ASCE/SEI 23-97, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: www.asce.org.

ASCE (2000), 
Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures
ASCE 10-97, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: www.asce.org.

ASCE (2003), 
Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings
ASCE/SEI 31-03, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: www.asce.org.

ASCE (2005a), 
Standard Calculation Methods for Structural Fire Protection
ASCE/SEI/SFPE 29-05, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: www.asce.org.

ASCE (2005b), 
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
ASCE/SEI 7-05, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: www.asce.org.

ASCE (2006), 
Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings
ASCE/SEI 41-06, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: www.asce.org.

ASCE (2008), 
Standard Calculation Methods for Structural Fire Protection
ASCE/SEI/SFPE 29-08, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
ASCE/SEI/SFPE 29-05 available at: www.asce.org.

ASCE (2010), 
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
ASCE/SEI 7-10, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: www.asce.org.

ASCE Task Committee on Design Criteria for Composite Structures in Steel and Concrete (1992a), 
“Proposed Specification for Structural Steel Beams with Web Openings,” 
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 118, No. ST12, December, pp. 3,315–3,324.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

ASCE Task Committee on Design Criteria for Composite Structures in Steel and Concrete (1992b), 
“Commentary on Proposed Specification for Structural Steel Beams with Web Openings,” 
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 118, No. ST12, December, pp. 3,325–3,349.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

ASCE Task Committee on Drift Control of Steel Building Structures (1988), 
“Wind Drift Design of Steel-Framed Buildings: State of the Art,” 
Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 114, No. 9, pp. 2,085–2,108.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

ASCE Task Committee on Effective Length (1997), 
Effective Length and Notional Load Approaches for Assessing Frame Stability: Implications for American
Steel Design

American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: www.asce.org.

Aslani, F. and Goel, S.C. (1991), 
An Analytical Criteria for Buckling Strength of Built-Up Compression Members,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 28, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 159–168.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

ASNT (2006a), 
Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing
ASNT SNT-TC-1A-2003, 
American Society of Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, OH.
Available at: www.asnt.org.

ASNT (2006b), 
Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel
ANSI/ASNT CP-189-2006, 
American Society of Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, OH.
Available at: www.asnt.org.

ASTM (2006), 
Standard Test Methods for Determining Effects of Large Hydrocarbon Pool Fires on Structural Members
and Assemblies

ASTM E1529-06, 
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2007a), 
Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Warpage and Distortion During Hot-Dip Galvanizing of Steel
Assemblies

ASTM A384/A384M-07, 
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2007b), 
Standard Practice for Castings, Carbon, Low-Alloy, and Martensitic Stainless Steel, Ultrasonic
Examination Thereof

ASTM A609/A609M-91(2007), 
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2007c), 
Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60 000 PSI Tensile Strength
ASTM A307-07b, 
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2007d), 
Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds 
and Shapes

ASTM A500/A500M-07, 
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2009a), 
Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware
ASTM A153/153M-09, 
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2009b), 
Standard Practice for Providing High-Quality Zinc Coatings (Hot-Dip), 
ASTM A385/A385M-09, 
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2009c), 
Standard Practice for Repair of Damaged and Uncoated Areas of Hot-Dip Galvanized Coatings
ASTM A780/A780M-09, 
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2009d), 
Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials
ASTM E119-09c, 
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA. 
Available at: www.astm.org.

ASTM (2009e), 
Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products
ASTM A123/A123M-09, 
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
Available at: www.astm.org.

ATC (1978), 
“Tentative Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for Buildings,” 
Publication 3-06, 
Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, CA, June.
Available at: www.atcouncil.org.

Austin, W.J. (1961), 
“Strength and Design of Metal Beam-Columns,” 
Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 87, No. ST4, April, pp. 1–32.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

AWS (1977), 
Criteria for Describing Oxygen-Cut Surfaces
AWS C4.1-77, 
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Avaliable at: www.aws.org.

AWS (2003), 
Specification For The Qualification Of Welding Inspectors
AWS B5.1:03, 
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Avaliable at: www.aws.org.

AWS (2010), 
Structural Welding Code—Steel
AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2010, 
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Avaliable at: www.aws.org.

Bartlett, R.M., Dexter, R.J., Graeser, M.D., Jelinek, J.J., Schmidt, B.J. and Galambos, T.V. (2003),
Updating Standard Shape Material Properties Database for Design and Reliability,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 2–14.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Basler, K. (1961), 
“Strength of Plate Girders in Shear,” 
Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 104, No. ST9, October, pp. 151–180.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Basler, K., Yen, B.T., Mueller, J.A. and Thürlimann, B. (1960), 
“Web Buckling Tests on Welded Plate Girders,” 
Welding Research Council Bulletin No. 64, September, New York, NY.
Available at: http://www.forengineers.org/wrc.

Basler, K. and Thürlimann, B. (1963), 
“Strength of Plate Girders in Bending,” 
Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 128, Part II, pp. 655–682.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Bathe, K. (1995), 
Finite Element Procedures
Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
This publication is not readily available.

Beedle, L.S. (1958), 
Plastic Design of Steel Frames
John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

Bigos, J., Smith, G.W., Ball, E.F. and Foehl, P.J. (1954), 
Shop Paint and Painting Practice,” 
Proceedings of AISC National Engineering Conference, Milwaukee, WI, 
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Bijlaard, F.S.K., Gresnigt, A.M. and van der Vegte, G.J. (eds.) (2005), 
Connections in Steel Structures V
Bouwen met Staal, Delft, the Netherlands.
Available at: http://www.citg.tudelft.nl/en/.

Birkemoe, P.C. and Gilmor, M.I. (1978), 
Behavior of Bearing-Critical Double-Angle Beam Connections,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 15, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 109–115.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Birnstiel, C. and Iffland, J.S.B. (1980), 
“Factors Influencing Frame Stability,” 
Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 106, No. 2, pp. 491–504.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Bjorhovde, R. (1972), 
“Deterministic and Probabilistic Approaches to the Strength of Steel Columns,” 
Ph.D. Dissertation, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, May.
This publication is not readily available.

Bjorhovde, R. (1978), 
“The Safety of Steel Columns,” 
Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 104, No. ST9, September, pp. 1371–1387.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Bjorhovde, R. and Birkemoe, P.C. (1979), 
“Limit States Design of HSS Columns,” 
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 276–291.
Available at: www.nrcresearchpress.com/journal/cjce.

Bjorhovde, R., Brozzetti, J. and Colson, A. (eds.) (1988), 
Connections in Steel Structures: Behaviour, Strength and Design
Elsevier Applied Science, London, England.
Available at: www.taylorandfrancis.com.

Bjorhovde, R. (1988), 
Columns: From Theory to Practice,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1st Quarter, pp. 21–34.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Bjorhovde, R., Colson, A. and Brozzetti, J. (1990), 
“Classification System for Beam-to-Column Connections,” 
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 116, No. 11, pp. 3,059–3,076.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Avaliable at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Bjorhovde, R., Colson, A., Haaijer, G. and Stark, J.W.B. (eds.) (1992), 
Connections in Steel Structures II: Behavior, Strength and Design, 
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Bjorhovde, R., Colson, A. and Zandonini, R. (eds.) (1996), 
Connections in Steel Structures III:  Behaviour, Strength and Design
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Strength of Singly Symmetric I-Shaped Beam-Columns,” 
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New Design Criteria for Gusset Plates in Tension”, 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 77–94.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Heinzerling, J.E. (1987), 
“Structural Design of Steel Joist Roofs to Resist Ponding Loads,” 
Technical Digest No. 3, 
Steel Joist Institute, Myrtle Beach, SC.
Available at: www.steeljoist.org.

Helwig, T.A., Frank, K.H. and Yura, J.A. (1997), 
“Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Singly-Symmetric I-Beams,” 
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 9, September, pp. 1,172–1,179.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Higgins, T.R. and Preece, F.R. (1968), 
AWS-AISC Fillet Weld Study, Longitudinal and Transverse Shear Tests,” 
Internal Report, Testing Engineers, Inc., Oakland, CA, May 31.

Horne, M.R. and Morris, L.J. (1982), 
Plastic Design of Low-Rise Frames
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
This publication is not readily available.

Horne, M.R. and Grayson, W.R. (1983), 
“Parametric Finite Element Study of Transverse Stiffeners for Webs in Shear,” 
Instability and Plastic Collapse of Steel Structures, Proceedings of the Michael R. Horne Conference, L.J. 
Morris (ed.), Granada Publishing, London, pp. 329–341.
This publication is not readily available.

Hsieh, S.H. and Deierlein, G.G. (1991), 
“Nonlinear Analysis of Three-Dimensional Steel Frames with Semi-Rigid Connections,” 
Computers and Structures, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 995–1,009.
Available at: www.sciencedirect.com.

ICBO (1997), 
Uniform Building Code
International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, CA.
Available at: www.iccsafe.org.

ICC (2009), 
International Building Code
International Code Council, Falls Church, VA.
Available at: www.iccsafe.org.

IIW (1989), 
“Design Recommendations for Hollow Section Joints—Predominantly Statically Loaded,” 
2nd Ed., IIW Document XV-701-89, IIW Annual Assembly, Subcommission XV-E, 
International Institute of Welding, Helsinki, Finland.
This publication is not readily available.

Irwin, A.W. (1986), 
“Motion in Tall Buildings,” 
Second Century of the Skyscraper, L.S. Beedle (ed.), 
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

Islam, M.S., Ellingwood, B. and Corotis, R.B. (1990), 
“Dynamic Response of Tall Buildings to Stochastic Wind Load,” 
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 116, No. 11, November, pp. 2,982–3,002.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

ISO (1977), 
“Bases for the Design of Structures—Deformations of Buildings at the Serviceability Limit States,” 
ISO 4356, 
International Standards Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Available at: www.iso.org.

Iwankiw, N. (1984), 
Note on Beam-Column Moment Amplification Factor,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1st Quarter, pp. 21-23.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Jacobs, W.J. and Goverdhan, A.V. (2010), 
“Review and Comparison of  Encased Composite Steel-Concrete Column Detailing Requirements,” 
Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete VI, R. Leon et al. (eds.), 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Jayas, B.S. and Hosain, M.U. (1988a), 
“Composite Beams with Perpendicular Ribbed Metal Deck,” 
Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete II, C.D. Buckner and I.M. Viest (eds.), 
American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, pp. 511–526.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Jayas, B.S. and Hosain, M.U. (1988b), 
“Behaviour of Headed Studs in Composite Beams:  Push-Out Tests,” 
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 240–253.
Available at: www.nrcresearchpress.com/journal/cjce.

JCRC (1971), 
Handbook of Structural Stability
Japanese Column Research Council, English translation, pp. 3–22.
This publication is not readily available.

Johnson, D.L. (1985), 
An Investigation into the Interaction of Flanges and Webs in Wide-Flange Shapes,” 
Proceedings of the Annual Technical Session and Meeting, Cleveland, OH, April 16-17, 1985, 
Structural Stability Research Council, Bethlehem, PA, pp. 397–405. 

Johnson, D.L. (1996), 
“Final Report on Tee Stub Tests,” 
Butler Corporation Research Report, Grandview, MO, May.
This publication is not readily available.

Johnson, R.P. and Yuan, H. (1998), 
“Existing Rules and New Tests for Stud Shear Connectors in Troughs of Profiled Sheeting,” 
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings, Vol. 128, No. 3, pp. 244–251.
Available at: www.ice.org.uk.

Johnston, B.G. (1939), 
“Pin-Connected Plate Links,” 
Transactions of the ASCE, Vol. 104, pp. 314–339.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
This publication is not readily available. 

Johnston, B.G. and Green, L.F. (1940), 
“Flexible Welded Angle Connections,” 
The Welding Journal, AWS, October.
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
This publication is not readily available.

Johnston, B.G. and Deits, G.R. (1942), 
“Tests of Miscellaneous Welded Building Connections,” 
The Welding Journal, November, p. 5.
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Available at: www.aws.org.

Johnston, B.G. (ed.) (1976), 
Guide to Stability Design for Metal Structures
3rd Ed., 
Structural Stability Research Council, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
Sixth edition available at: www.wiley.com.

Kaczinski, M.R., Schneider, C.R., Dexter, R.J. and Lu, L.-W. (1994), 
“Local Web Crippling of Unstiffened Multi-Cell Box Sections,” 
Proceedings of the ASCE Structures Congress ’94, Atlanta, GA, Vol. 1, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, pp. 343–348.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Kaehler, R.C., White, D.W. and Kim, Y.D. (2010),
Frame Design Using Web-Tapered Members, Design Guide 25,  
Metal Building Manufacturers Association and AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Kanchanalai, T. (1977), 
The Design and Behavior of Beam-Columns in Unbraced Steel Frames
AISI Project No. 189, Report No. 2, 
Civil Engineering/Structures Research Lab., University of Texas, Austin, TX.
Available at: http://fsel.engr.utexas.edu.

Kanchanalai, T. and Lu, L.-W. (1979), 
Analysis and Design of Framed Columns under Minor Axis Bending,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 29–41.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Kato, B. (1990), 
“Deformation Capacity of Steel Structures,” 
Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 17, No. 1–2, pp. 33–94.
Available at: www.sciencedirect.com.

Kaufmann, E.J., Metrovich, B., Pense, A.W. and Fisher, J.W. (2001), 
Effect of Manufacturing Process on k-Area Properties and Service Performance,” 
Proceedings of the North American Steel Construction Conference, Fort Lauderdale, FL, May 9-12, 2001, 
AISC, Chicago, IL, pp. 17.1–17.24. 

Kavanagh, T.C. (1962), 
“Effective Length of Framed Columns,” 
Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 127, pp. 81–101.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Keating, P.B. and Fisher, J.W. (1986), 
“Evaluation of Fatigue Tests and Design Criteria on Welded Details,” 
NCHRP Report No. 286, 
Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, September. 
Available at: www.trb.org.

Kemp, A.R. (1996), 
“Inelastic Local and Lateral Buckling in Design Codes,” 
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 122, No. 4, pp. 374–382.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Kim, H.J. and Yura, J.A. (1996), 
“The Effect of End Distance on the Bearing Strength of Bolted Connections,” 
PMFSEL Report No. 96-1, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
Available at: http://fsel.engr.utexas.edu.

Kim, Y.D., Jung, S.-K. and White, D.W. (2007), 
“Transverse Stiffener Requirements in Straight and Horizontally Curved Steel I-Girders,” 
Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 174–183.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Kirby, B.R. and Preston, R.R. (1988), 
“High Temperature Properties of Hot-Rolled Structural Steels for Use in Fire Engineering Design 
Studies,” 
Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 13, pp. 27–37.
Available at: www.sciencedirect.com.

Kirby, P.A. and Nethercot, D.A. (1979), 
Design for Structural Stability
John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

Kishi, N. and Chen, W.F. (1986), 
“Data Base of Steel Beam-to-Column Connections,” 
Vol. 1 and 2, Structural Engineering Report No. CE-STR-86-26, 
School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
Available at: https://engineering.purdue.edu.

Kitipornchai, S. and Trahair, N.S. (1980), 
“Buckling Properties of Monosymmetric I-Beams,” 
Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 106, No. ST5, May, pp. 941–957.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Kitipornchai, S. and Traves, W.H. (1989), 
“Welded-Tee End Connections for Circular Hollow Tubes,” 
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 115, No.12, pp. 3,155–3,170.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Klöppel, K. and Seeger, T. (1964), 
“Dauerversuche Mit Einschnittigen HV-Verbindurgen Aus ST37,” 
Der Stahlbau, Vol. 33, No. 8, August, pp. 225–245 and Vol. 33, No. 11, November, pp. 335–346.
This publication is not readily available.

Kosteski, N. and Packer, J.A. (2003), 
“Longitudinal Plate and Through Plate-to-HSS Welded Connections,” 
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 129, No. 4, pp. 478–486.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Kuchenbecker, G.H., White, D.W. and Surovek-Maleck, A.E. (2004), 
“Simplified Design of Building Frames Using First-Order Analysis and K=1,” 
Proceedings of the Annual Technical Session and Meeting, Long Beach, CA, March 24-27, 2004, 
Structural Stability Research Council, Rolla, MO, pp. 119–138.
Available at: www.stabilitycouncil.org.

Kulak, G.L., Fisher, J.W. and Struik, J.H.A. (1987), 
Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints
2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

Kulak, G.L. and Grondin, G.Y. (2001), 
"AISC LRFD Rules for Block Shear-A Review," 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 38, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 199–203. 
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Kulak, G.L. and Grondin, G.Y. (2002),
Closure: AISC LRFD Rules for Block Shear-A Review," 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 39, No. 4, 4th Quarter, p. 241.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Kulak, G.L. (2002), 
High Strength Bolts: A Primer for Structural Engineers, Design Guide 17,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Kurobane, Y., Packer, J.A., Wardenier, J. and Yeomans, N.F. (2004), 
“Design Guide for Structural Hollow Section Column Connections,” 
CIDECT Design Guide No. 9, 
CIDECT (ed.) and Verlag TÜV Rheinland, Köln, Germany.
Available at: www.cidect.org.

Part 16 (Authors: L - Z): Commentary on the AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings

Lawson, R.M. (1992), 
“Shear Connection in Composite Beams,” 
Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete II, W.S. Easterling and W.M.K. Roddis, (eds.), 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Lee, D., Cotton, S., Dexter, R.J., Hajjar, J.F., Ye, Y. and Ojard, S.D. (2002a), 
“Column Stiffener Detailing and Panel Zone Behavior of Steel Moment Frame Connections,” 
Report No. ST-01-3.2, 
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
Available at: www.msi.umn.edu.

Lee, S.C., Yoo, C.H. and Yoon, D.Y. (2002b), 
“Behavior of Intermediate Transverse Stiffeners Attached on Web Panels,” 
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 128, No. 3, pp. 337–345. 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/

Leigh, J.M. and Lay, M.G. (1978),
“Laterally Unsupported Angles with Equal and Unequal Legs,” 
Report MRL 22/2, July, 
Melbourne Research Laboratories, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
This publication is not readily available.

Leigh, J.M. and Lay, M.G. (1984), 
The Design of Laterally Unsupported Angles,” 
Steel Design Current Practice, Section 2, Bending Members, January,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

LeMessurier, W.J. (1976), 
A Practical Method of Second Order Analysis, Part 1— Pin-Jointed Frames,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 13, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 89–96.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

LeMessurier, W.J. (1977), 
A Practical Method of Second Order Analysis, Part 2— Rigid Frames,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 49–67.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

LeMessurier, W.J. (1995), 
“Simplified K Factors for Stiffness Controlled Designs,” 
Restructuring: America and Beyond, Proceedings of ASCE Structures Congress XIII, Boston, MA, April 2-
5, 1995, pp. 1,797–1,812.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Leon, R.T. (1990), 
Serviceability of Composite Floor,” 
Proceedings of the 1990 National Steel Construction Conference, pp. 18:1–18:23. 
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Leon, R.T. and Alsamsam, I. (1993), 
Performance and Serviceability of Composite Floors, Structural Engineering in Natural Hazards 
Mitigation, 
Proceedings of the ASCE Structures Congress, pp. 1,479–1,484.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Leon, R.T. (1994), 
Composite Semi-Rigid Construction,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 31. No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 57–67.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Leon, R.T., Hoffman, J. and Staeger, T. (1996), 
Design of Partially-Restrained Composite Connections, Design Guide 8,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Leon, R.T. and Easterling, W.S. (eds.) (2002), 
Connections in Steel Structures IV-Behavior, Strength and Design
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Leon, R.T., Kim, D.K. and Hajjar, J.F. (2007), 
Limit State Response of Composite Columns and Beam-Columns Part 1: Formulation of Design 
Provisions for the 2005 AISC Specification
,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 341–358.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Leon, R.T. and Hajjar, J.F. (2008), 
Limit State Response of Composite Columns and Beam-Columns Part 2: Application of Design 
Provisions for the 2005 AISC Specification
,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1st Quarter, pp. 21–46.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Lesik, D.F. and Kennedy, D.J.L. (1990), 
“Ultimate Strength of Fillet Welded Connections Loaded in Plane,” 
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 55–67.
Available at: www.nrcresearchpress.com/journal/cjce.

Lewis, B.E. and Zwerneman, F.J. (1996), 
Edge Distance, Spacing, and Bearing in Bolted Connections,” 
Research Report,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, July. 

Liew, J.Y., White, D.W. and Chen, W.F. (1993), 
“Second-Order Refined Plastic-Hinge Analysis for Frame Design, Parts I and II,” 
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 119, No. 11, pp. 3,196–3,237.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Lorenz, R.F., Kato, B. and Chen, W.F. (eds.) (1993), 
Semi-Rigid Connections in Steel Frames
Council for Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, Bethlehem, PA.
This publication is not readily available.

Lu, Y.O. and Kennedy, D.J.L. (1994), 
“The Flexural Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Hollow Structural Sections,” 
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 111–130.
Available at: www.nrcresearchpress.com/journal/cjce.

Lui, Z. and Goel, S.C. (1987), 
Investigation of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubes Under Cyclic Bending and Buckling,” 
UMCE Report 87-3, 
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. 

Lutz, L.A. and Fisher, J.M. (1985), 
A Unified Approach for Stability Bracing Requirements," 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 22, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 163–167.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Lutz, L.A. (1992), 
“Critical Slenderness of Compression Members with Effective Lengths about Non-Principal Axes,” 
Proceedings of the Annual Technical Session and Meeting, April 6-7, 1992, Pittsburgh, PA, 
Structural Stability Research Council, Bethlehem, PA.
Available at: www.stabilitycouncil.org.

Lyse, I. and Schreiner, N.G. (1935), 
“An Investigation of Welded Seat Angle Connections,” 
The Welding Journal, February, p. 1.
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Available at: www.aws.org.

Lyse, I. and Gibson, G.J. (1937), 
“Effect of Welded Top Angles on Beam-Column Connections,” 
The Welding Journal, October.
American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
This publication not readily available.

Madugula, M.K.S. and Kennedy, J.B. (1985), 
Single and Compound Angle Members
Elsevier Applied Science, New York, NY.
This publication not readily available.

Marino, F.J. (1966), 
Ponding of Two-Way Roof Systems,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 93–100.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Marshall, P.W. (1992), 
Design of Welded Tubular Connections: Basis and Use of AWS Code Provisions
Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
This publication not readily available.

Martinez-Garcia, J.M. and Ziemian, R.D. (2006), 
“Benchmark Studies to Compare Frame Stability Provisions,” 
Proceedings-Annual Technical Session and Meeting
Structural Stability Research Council, San Antonio, TX, pp. 425–442.
Available at: www.stabilitycouncil.org.

McGuire, W. (1992), 
“Computer-Aided Analysis,” 
Constructional Steel Design: An International Guide, P.J. Dowling, J.E. Harding and R. Bjorhovde (eds.), 
Elsevier Applied Science, New York, NY, pp. 915–932. 
Available at: www.routledge.com.

McGuire, W., Gallagher, R.H. and Ziemian, R.D. (2000), 
Matrix Structural Analysis
2nd Ed., 
John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, NY. 
Available at: www.wiley.com.

Mottram, J.T. and Johnson, R.P. (1990), 
“Push Tests on Studs Welded Through Profiled Steel Sheeting,” 
The Structural Engineer, Vol. 68, No. 10, pp. 187–193.
Available at: www.istructe.org.

Munse, W.H. and Chesson, Jr., E., (1963), 
“Riveted and Bolted Joints: Net Section Design,” 
Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 89, No. ST1, February, pp. 49–106.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Murray, T.M., Kline, D.P. and Rojani, K.B. (1992), 
“Use of Snug-Tightened Bolts in End-Plate Connections,” 
Connections in Steel Structures II, R. Bjorhovde, A. Colson, G. Haaijer and J.W.B. Stark, (eds.), 
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Murray, T.M., Allen, D.E. and Ungar, E.E. (1997), 
Floor Vibrations Due to Human Activity, Design Guide 11,
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Murray, T.M. and Sumner, E.A. (2004), 
End-Plate Moment Connections—Wind and Seismic Applications, Design Guide 4, 2nd Ed., 
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Nethercot, D.A. (1985), 
Steel Beam to Column Connections—A Review of Test Data and Their Applicability to the Evaluation of 
the Joint Behaviour of the Performance of Steel Frames
,”
CIRIA, London, England. 

NFPA (2002a), 
Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems
NFPA 25, 
National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA.
Available at: www.nfpa.org.

NFPA (2002b), 
Standard on Smoke and Heat Venting
NFPA 204, 
National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA.
Available at: www.nfpa.org.

Nowak, A.S. and Collins, K. R. (2000), 
Reliability of Structures
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Second edition available at: www.taylorandfrancis.com.

NRC (1974), 
“Expansion Joints in Buildings,” 
Technical Report No. 65, Standing Committee on Structural Engineering of the Federal Construction 
Council, Building Research Advisory Board, Division of Engineering, National Research Council, National 
Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
Available at: http://nap.edu/.

NRCC (1990), 
National Building Code of Canada
National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Available at: www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca.

Oehlers, D.J. and Bradford, M.A. (1995), 
Composite Steel and Concrete Members
Elsevier Science, Inc., Tarrytown, NY.
This publication is not readily available.

Ollgaard, J.G., Slutter, R.G. and Fisher, J.W. (1971), 
Shear Strength of Stud Shear Connections in Lightweight and Normal Weight Concrete,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, pp. 55–64.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

OSHA (2001), 
Safety and Health Regulations for Construction
Standards–29 CFR 1926 Subpart R—Steel Erection, 
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.
Available at: www.osha.gov.

Packer, J.A., Birkemoe, P.C., and Tucker, W.J. (1984), 
“Canadian Implementation of CIDECT Monograph No. 6,” 
CIDECT Report No. 5AJ-84/9-E, 
University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Available at: www.cidect.com.

Packer, J.A., Wardenier, J., Kurobane, Y., Dutta, D., and Yeomans, N. (1992), 
“Design Guide for Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Joints under Predominantly Static Loading,” 
CIDECT Design Guide No. 3, CIDECT (ed.) and Verlag TÜV Rheinland, Köln, Germany.
Available at: www.cidect.org.

Packer, J.A. and Cassidy, C.E. (1995), 
“Effective Weld Length for HSS T, Y and X Connections,” 
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 121, No. 10, pp. 1,402–1,408.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Available at: http://cedb.asce.org/.

Packer, J.A. and Henderson, J.E. (1997), 
Hollow Structural Section Connections and Trusses-A Design Guide
2nd Ed., 
Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, Toronto, Canada.
Available at: www.cisc-icca.ca.

Packer, J.A. (2004), 
Reliability of Welded Tubular K-Connection Resistance Expressions,” 
International Institute of Welding (IIW) Document XV-E-04-291, 
University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. 

Pallarés, L. and Hajjar, J.F. (2010a), 
“Headed Steel Stud Anchors in Composite Structures: Part II. Tension and Interaction,” 
Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 66, No. 2, February, pp. 213–228. 
Available at: www.sciencedirect.com.

Pallarés, L. and Hajjar, J.F. (2010b), 
“Headed Steel Stud Anchors in Composite Structures: Part I. Shear,” 
Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 66, No. 2, February, pp. 198–212
Available at: www.sciencedirect.com.

Pate-Cornell, E. (1994), 
“Quantitative Safety Goals for Risk Management of Industrial Facilities,” 
Structural Safety, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 145–157. 
Available at: www.sciencedirect.com.

Popov, E.P. and Stephen, R.M. (1977), 
Capacity of Columns with Splice Imperfections,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1st Quarter, pp. 16–23.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Popov, E.P. (1980), 
An Update on Eccentric Seismic Bracing,” 
Engineering Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 70–71.
AISC, Chicago, IL. 

Preece, F.R. (1968), 
AWS-AISC Fillet Weld Study—Longitudinal and Transverse Shear Tests,” 
Testing Engineers, Inc., Los Angeles, CA, May. 

Prion, H.G.L. and Boehme, J. (1994), 
“Beam-column behaviour of steel tubes filled with high strength concrete,” 
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 207–218. 
Available at www.nrcresearchpress.com/journal/cjce.

Prochnow, S.D., Ye, Y., Dexter, R.J., Hajjar, J.F. and Cotton, S.C. (2000), 
Local Flange Bending and Local Web Yielding Limit States in Steel Moment Resisting Connections,” 
Connections in Steel Structures IV-Behavior, Strength and Design, R.T. Leon and W.S. Easterling (eds.), 
AISC, Chicago, IL, pp. 318–328. 

Rahal, K.N. and Harding, J.E. (1990a), 
“Transversely Stiffened Girder Webs Subjected to Shear Loading-Part 1: Behaviour,” 
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Part 2, 1989, March, pp. 47–65.
Available at: www.ice.org.uk.

Rahal, K.N. and Harding, J.E. (1990b), 
“Transversely Stiffened Girder Webs Subjected to Shear Loading-Part 2: Stiffener Design,” 
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Part 2, 1989, March, pp. 67–87.
Available at: www.ice.org.uk.

Rahal, K.N. and Harding, J.E. (1991), 
“Transversely Stiffened Girder Webs Subjected to Combined In-Plane Loading,” 
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Part 2, 1991, June, pp. 237–258.
Available at: www.ice.org.uk.

Ravindra, M.K. and Galambos, T.V. (1978), 
“Load and Resistance Factor Design for Steel,” 
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Winter, G. (1960), 
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Winter, G. (1960), 
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Winter, G. (1968), 
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Yuan, Q., Swanson, J. and Rassati, G.A. (2004), 
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Yura, J.A., Birkemoe, P.C. and Ricles, J.M. (1982), 
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Yura, J.A. (1995), 
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Yura, J.A., Kanchanalai, T. and Chotichanathawenwong, S. (1996), 
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Zahn, C.J. and Haaijer, G. (1987), 
"Effect of Connector Spacing on Double Angle Compressive Strength," 
Materials and Member Behavior, Proceedings, Structures Congress 1987, Orlando, FL, pp. 199–212.
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Zandonini, R. (1985), 
Stability of Compact Built-Up Struts: Experimental Investigation and Numerical Simulation,” 
Costruzioni Metalliche, No. 4. 

Ziemian, R.D, McGuire, W. and Deierlein, G. (1992), 
“Inelastic Limit States Design, Part I: Planar Frame Studies, and Part II: Three-Dimensional Frame Study,”
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 118, No. 9, pp. 2532–2567.
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
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Ziemian, R.D. and Miller, A.R. (1997), 
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Ziemian, R.D. and McGuire, W. (2002), 
“Modified Tangent Modulus Approach, a Contribution to Plastic Hinge Analysis,” 
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 128, No. 10, October, pp. 1301–1307.
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Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures
6th Ed., 
John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, NJ
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