30   Evolutionary Optimization
By Stephen Reichwein, SE, PE, and Phillip R. Bellis, PE
A discussion on parametric design and optimization of steel structures.

36   The Times, They’ve Always Been a-Changin’
By Jon D. Magnusson, SE, PE, Hon. AIA
What propels the speed of structural engineering? In a word: technology.

42   What’s Cool in Steel 2021
Every year, Modern Steel presents a compendium of fun projects showcasing the cool use of steel, as well as other steel-related initiatives and goings-on.



16   Navigating the New AWS Welding Code
By Trish Fliss and Chuck Schroeder
The latest version of the AWS steel welding code features several enhancements, starting with improved navigation.

data driven
21   Industrial Insight
By Joe Dardis
A look into the industrial market provides some details on what structural engineers and steel fabricators can expect over the next few years.

field notes
24   Oil (and Steel) on Canvas
Interview by Geoff Weisenberger
Gwyneth Leech brings out the bold beauty of steel construction in her portraits of under-construction Manhattan high-rises.

business issues
28   Everyone’s a Critic
By Dan Coughlin
What we criticize in others might look very familiar to us.